Situated within the Bad Durkheim area of Germany, Pfalz (Palatinate) is the second largest winegrowing region after Rheinhessen. With the first vines having been planted by the Romans, today there are over 57,000 acres (23,000 hectares) planted in the Pfalz region, stretching from its border with Worms to the north, and across to the French border at Wissembourg on the southwest. Much of the region, particularly between the mountains of the Black Forest to the east and to the Haardt mountains to the west, is a fine mixture of alluvial gravel, igneous granite and basalt, with sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, limestone and chalk, rich in fossilised crustaceans. Indeed, as much of this land was once under water, soils around this area produce full and rich grapes. There are 45 white and 22 red grape varieties permitted to be cultivated in this region however, Riesling, Pinot Noir, Portugieser and Dornfelder tend to dominate the landscape.